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Austria map

Postby Tauran В» 01.04.2020

William Greenfield ("Henry") Fry, b.

It is bordered by Germany to the northwest, Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. While German is the country's official language , [10] many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects. Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around and developed into a duchy and archduchy.

In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg — one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire , which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states.

After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with Germany , which eventually failed because of the Allied Powers and the state remained unrecognized. In the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government.

Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators. The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in Austria has been a member of the United Nations since and [13] joined the European Union in Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is Ostravica 'sharp mountain' , because it is very steep on both sides.

Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell- Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.

Carnuntum was home for 50, people for nearly years. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in In , the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in , the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.

The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, [29] of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves".

During the long reign of Leopold I — and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski , [31] a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.

Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. With the rise of Prussia , the Austrian—Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland in and Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France , at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in Two years earlier, [32] the Empire of Austria was founded.

From to , the Austrians had suffered , casualties. It emerged from the Congress of Vienna in as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany. The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a Greater Germany , or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all.

As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of , the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. In , Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in As a result, ruling Austria—Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police.

Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt , publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania , was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices. Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I , in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours black, red, and yellow , although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire.

Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character.

Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria with Germany. A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni 's language decree of , which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages.

This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke German but not the other way around. On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business. This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November , solely to the emperor and his government.

On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic. The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung federal government and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat national council was passed on 10 November The Treaty of Saint-Germain of for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November , creating new states and altering others.

On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" Article 1 and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" Article 2. Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia , Yugoslavia , Hungary , and Italy. The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government.

Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes later Yugoslavia was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria.

This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency. In autumn , Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations.

The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. In , the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10, Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability.

From to , the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing [ clarification needed ] after Black Tuesday. The First Austrian Republic lasted until , when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss , using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" , established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism. In February , several members of the Schutzbund were executed, [61] the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.

His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent.

On 12 March , Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place. Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich " on Vienna's Heldenplatz. He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April Parliamentary elections were held in Germany including recently annexed Austria on 10 April They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria the Anschluss.

Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, On 12 March , Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country. The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" i.

The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps. However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule. On 1 May , the federal constitution of , which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May , was declared valid again.

Total military deaths from to are estimated at , Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone , a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoided.

Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies. On 15 May , after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War , Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers. On 26 October , after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of and , which was reintroduced in Kurt Waldheim , a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes , was elected President of Austria from to Following a referendum in , at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy , participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO 's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.

Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in , none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore. The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna , the country's capital and most populous city.

Austria became a federal , representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of , amended in , which was reenacted on 1 May The head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor Bundeskanzler , who is selected by the President and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament.

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Postby Goltigal В» 01.04.2020

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Postby Nit В» 01.04.2020

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Postby Kijar В» 01.04.2020

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Postby Akibar В» 01.04.2020

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Postby Sagar В» 01.04.2020

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